A Linguistic Commentary on Livius Andronicus (Studies in by Ivy Livingston

By Ivy Livingston

Because the oldest literary Latin preserved in any volume, the language of Livius exhibits many positive aspects of linguistic curiosity and increases exciting questions of phonolgy, morphology and syntax.

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The paradigms damus , datis , danunt , explemus , expletis, explenunt , and fer imus , fer itis , fer inunt could easily have prompted a different analogy, so that - inunt was created beside - imus , - itis and inseri%nuntur beside inserimus , inseritis . The analogy does not seem to have affected the paradigm of these verbs beyond the third plural, with one possible exception. 18 If, however, the definition ‘consulo ’ is simply an error, solino may show that the analogy did begin to proceed a bit further, but apparently did not get far before these forms fell into disuse.

Yana word the Homeric expression mo ˜i r’ o’ lo¢j Although the semantic context of Morta would seem to require the root etymology discussed above, it is nevertheless true that the root *mer- of morior , mors , etc. formed a primary to -participle *mr -to- ‘dead’ ( /Skt. mr ta- , Gk. ˚ ˚ a )mbrotow), which would also have given *morto- in Latin, identical to the (¶ j corresponding form of *(s)mer- ‘to get a share’. If Latin had an inherited *morto- ‘dead’, Morta could, in theory, be a verbal abstract ‘death’ substantivized from this participle.

Since we should not, therefore, have complete faith in the statements of the grammarians, it may be profitable to use other methods to determine independently, if possible, the sense of topper . One obvious way to begin is to examine the context of the word, but this method cannot be expected to reveal much more to modern scholars than it did to the ancients. The context fails not only to confirm the translations quoted in Festus, but also to suggest any reasonably sure alternative. It may prove useful to note, however, that in seven of the nine passages, topper is the initial word of the sentence.

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