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Extra info for Advances in Chemical Physics: The Excited State in Chemical Physics, Part II, Volume 45
In cases where the electronic shells are well separated 0 10 x) 33 40 50 energy loss (eV) Figure 13. ’~~. V. Experimental Measurements 41 we may apply this rule to each shell with a suitable correction for already occupied levels, as discussed by Wheeler and B e a r d e ~ Using ' ~ ~ the constant-intensity virtual photon field (see Section I), it is possible to obtain essentially the whole relative absorption spectrum for a given shell (a small extrapolation error is involved when the spectrum is extended over 100- 150 eV above threshold).
2 Electrons inelastically scattered or ejected in the collision region are sampled by an energy analyzer. The scattered (ejected) electrons are accelerated (or retarded) to the appropriate constant pass energy of the analyzer by the application of a voltage [which effectively compensates the energy loss (E) IV. Experimental Considerations 27 MONO - DETECTOR - Figure 4. Schematic diagram of energy-loss electron scattering. in the case of scattered electrons]. For fast electron impact, this energy loss is analogous to the photon energy in optical experiments (Section I).
Electron Detectors and Slgnal Processlng In all types of electron spectroscopy it is often necessary to detect electrons over a wide range of intensities. Since very small currents must usually be detected with rapid time response it is generally necessary to use electron multipliers, pulse-counting techniques, and some type of signal averaging. The most generally used type of detector is the channel electron multiplier, which has the enormous advantage of a high gain ( < lo8), which is not degraded by repeated exposure to air.