By Aditya Pratap Ph.D., Jitendra Kumar (auth.), Aditya Pratap, Jitendra Kumar (eds.)
Genetic engineering and biotechnology in addition to traditional breeding have performed an incredible position in constructing greater cultivars via shifting economically very important characteristics from far away, wild or even unrelated species to the cultivated kinds which differently couldn't were attainable with traditional breeding. there's a titanic volume of literature referring to the genetic development of plants over previous few a long time. notwithstanding, the fantastic effects accomplished by means of crop scientists in foodstuff legumes’ examine and improvement through the years are scattered in numerous journals of the area. the 2 volumes within the sequence ‘Alien Gene move in Crop crops’ deal with this factor and provide a finished reference at the advancements made in significant meals plants of the realm. those volumes target at bringing the contributions from globally well known scientists at one platform in a reader-friendly demeanour. the first quantity entitled, ‘Alien Gene move in Crop vegetation: recommendations, equipment and danger overview” will deal solely with the method and technique. The contents of this quantity were designed to appraise the readers with the entire theoretical and useful points of extensive hybridization and gene move like methods and strategies of gene move, function of biotechnology with exact connection with embryo rescue, genetic transformation, protoplast fusion and molecular marker expertise, difficulties equivalent to go incompatibility and boundaries to far away hybridization and ideas to beat them. because wild and weedy kinfolk of crop vegetation could have damaging qualities linked to them, there are continually probabilities of linkage drag whereas shifting alien alleles. hence, difficulties and obstacles of alien gene move from those species can be mentioned during this sequence. extra, the linked hazards with this and evaluation of hazards can be given due weightage.
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Additional info for Alien Gene Transfer in Crop Plants, Volume 1: Innovations, Methods and Risk Assessment
2004; Matsuoka and Nasuda 2004; Zhang et al. 2007, 2008b, 2008c, 2010, 2011b, Tiwari et al. 2008; Loureiro et al. 2009; Yang et al. 2010; Matsuoka 2011; Silkova et al. 2011). This haploidy-dependent unreductional meiotic cell division (UMCD), resulting in unreduced gametes, has been considered the mechanism for chromosome doubling in the origins of allopolyploid species in Triticeae and other allopolyploid plant species (Cai and Xu 2007; Jauhar 2007; Matsuoka 2011; Silkova et al. 2011). Two main cytological processes leading to unreductional meiosis were described in Triticeae genotypes.
In most cases, the production of F1 hybrid is not a barrier for chromosome manipulation. 2 Chromosome Manipulation for Crop Improvement The chromosome behavior in F1 hybrid provides us the essential genetic basis of chromosome manipulation. In this review, we focus on the chromosome manipulations based on the chromosome behaviors of wide F1 hybrids: (1) alien chromosome elimination during the development of F1 hybrid embryos to produce haploids, 28 D. Liu et al. (2) chromosome doubling in somatic cells or gametes in F1 hybrid plants to produce amphidiploid, and (3) induction of homoeologous pairing in F1 hybrid plants and then the fixation of translocated chromosomes in their progenies to produce translocation lines (Fig.
However, translocations in other positions are not common since the homoeologous chromosomes between wheat and alien species in wide hybrids show a low pairing level at meiotic metaphase I (MI) due to the action 34 D. Liu et al. of pairing homoeologous (Ph) gene system in wheat, which restricts the production of wheat–alien translocations (Sears 1976; Martinez-Perez and Moore 2008). This system includes a major pairing gene, Ph1, on 5B (Okamoto 1957; Riley and Chapman 1958); an intermediate pairing gene, Ph2, on 3D (Mello-Sampayo 1971; Sutton et al.