Applied Polymer Science

By Roy W. Tess and Gary W. Poehlein (Eds.)

Content material: A century of polymer technology and expertise / Herman F. Mark -- creation to polymer technological know-how and know-how / Charles E. Carraher, Jr. and Raymond B. Seymour -- Anionic polymerization / Maurice Morton -- Coordinated anionic polymerization and polymerization mechanisms / Frederick J. Karol -- fresh advancements in cationic polymerization / Virgil Percec -- Emulsion polymerization / Gary W. Poehlein -- New advancements and traits in free-radical polymerization / George E. Ham -- Condensation polymerization and polymerization mechanisms / I.K. Miller and J. Zimmerman -- Block polymers and comparable fabrics / N.R. Legge, S. Davison, H.E. De l. a. Mare, G. Holden, and M.K. Martin -- Multicomponent polymer structures / Norbert Platzer -- Structure-property relationships in polymers / Turner Alfrey, Jr. -- shipping homes of polymers / D.R. Paul -- Fracture mechanics of polymers / K.L. Devries and R.J. Nuismer -- Flammability of polymers / Y.P. Khanna and E.M. Pearce -- The plastic : economics and end-use markets / R.A. Mccarthy -- Polyolefins / Frank M. Mcmillan -- Polystyrene and styrene copolymers / William David Watson and Ted C. Wallace -- Poly(vinyl chloride) / Roy T. Gottesman and Donald Goodman -- Fiber-forming polymers / Michael J. Drews, Robert H. Barker, and John D. Hatcher -- Foamed plastics / Rudolph D. Deanin -- Engineering thermoplastics : chemistry and know-how / Daniel W. Fox and Edward N. Peters -- Polymers and the know-how of electric insulation / J.H. Lupinski -- scientific functions of polymers / Charles G. Gebelein -- Resins for aerospace / Clayton A. may perhaps -- Polymer processing / Nick R. Schott and Robert Malloy -- Plasticizers / J.K. Sears, N.W. Touchette, and J.R. Darby -- Theories of solvency and resolution / P.E. Rider -- Solvents / Roy W. Tess -- Spectroscopic equipment in examine and research of coatings and plastics / Clara D. Craver -- Electron microscopy in coatings and plastics study / L.H. Princen -- Rheology of film-forming drinks / Raymond R. Myers and Carl J. Knauss -- An advent to corrosion keep an eye on by means of natural coatings / R.A. Dickie -- tools of software of coatings / Emery P. Miller -- Electrodeposition of paint / George E.F. Brewer -- Curing equipment for coatings / Vincent D. Mcginnis and Gerald W. Gruber -- The coatings : economics and end-use markets / Joseph W. Prane -- equipment coatings / Thomas J. Miranda -- Polymer coatings for optical fibers / L.L. Blyler, Jr. and C.J. Aloisio -- Epoxy resins / R.S. Bauer -- Chemistry and know-how of polyamide resins from dimerized fatty acids / Michael A. Laudise -- Urethane coatings / Kurt C. Frisch and Panos Kordomenos -- Chemistry and expertise of acrylic resins for coatings / W.H. Brendley and R.D. Bakule -- Cellulose acetate and comparable esters / Larry G. Curtis and James D. Crowley -- Nitrocellulose, ethylcellulose, and water-soluble cellulose ethers / Rufus F. Wint and Kathryn G. Shaw -- Amino resins / L.L. Williams, I.H. Updegraff, and J.C. Petropoulos -- Resins and ingredients containing silicon / Shelby F. Thames -- Chemistry and know-how of phenolic resins and coatings / J.S. Fry, C.N. Merriam, and W.H. Boyd -- Tall oil and naval shops / Yun Jen and E.E. Mcsweeney -- Chemistry and know-how of alkyd and saturated reactive polyester resins / H.J. Lanson -- Vinyl resins utilized in coatings / Russell A. Park -- Bituminous coatings / Stephen H. Alexander -- Opaque white pigments in coatings / Fred B. Stieg -- colour pigments / Lawrence R. Lerner and Max Saltzman -- Paint manufacture / Louie F. Sanguinetti

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Transitions Polymers can e x h i b i t a number of d i f f e r e n t conformational changes with each change accompanied by differences i n polymer properties. Two major t r a n s i t i o n s occur at Tg, which i s associated with l o c a l , segmental chain m o b i l i t y i n the amorphous regions of a polymer, and the m e l t i n g p o i n t ( T ) , which i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h whole c h a i n m o b i l i t y . The T i s c a l l e d a f i r s t - o r d e r t r a n s i t i o n temperature, and Tg i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as a s e c o n d - o r d e r t r a n s i t i o n temperature.

ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1985. C A R R A H E R A N D SEYMOUR Introduction to Polymer Science and Technology F i g u r e 2. M o e l c u l a r weight d i s t r i b u t i o n s . (Reproduced w i t h p e r m i s s i o n from M c G r a w - H i l l . ; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1985. 34 A P P L I E D P O L Y M E R SCIENCE The weight-average molecular weight, M , i second power average as shown mathematically: w 00 if1 R w the second moment or s 2 M i N ± = (35) 1=1 B u l k p r o p e r t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l a r g e deformations, such as v i s c o s i t y and toughness, are p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l a t e d to M values.

A three-dimensional c r y s t a l l i n e polymer often can be described as a f r i n g e d m i c e l l e ( c h a i n s packed as a sheaf of g r a i n ) or as a folded chain. Regions where the polymer chains e x i s t i n an ordered array are c a l l e d c r y s t a l l i n e domains. These c r y s t a l l i n e domains i n polymers are t y p i c a l l y smaller than c r y s t a l l i n e portions of s m a l l e r molecules. Furthermore, i m p e r f e c t i o n s i n polymer c r y s t a l l i n e domains are more frequent, and one polymer c h a i n may r e s i d e both w i t h i n a c r y s t a l l i n e domain and w i t h i n amorphous r e g i o n s .

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