North Sea Region Climate Change Assessment by Markus Quante, Franciscus Colijn

By Markus Quante, Franciscus Colijn

This booklet bargains an up to date overview of our present figuring out of weather swap within the North Sea and adjoining parts, in addition to its influence on ecosystems and socio-economic sectors. It presents an in depth review of weather switch in keeping with released medical paintings compiled through autonomous overseas specialists from climate-related disciplines equivalent to oceanography, atmospheric sciences, marine and terrestrial ecology, utilizing a nearby evaluate and assessment method just like that of the Intergovernmental Panel on weather switch (IPCC). It offers a accomplished evaluate of all points of our altering weather, discussing a variety of issues together with earlier, present and destiny weather swap, and climate-related adjustments in marine, terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. It additionally explores the impression of weather switch on socio-economic sectors equivalent to fisheries, agriculture, coastal region administration, coastal safety, city weather, recreation/tourism, offshore activities/energy, and air pollution.

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The distribution and abundance of many species have changed. Warmer water species have become more abundant and species richness (biodiversity) has increased. This will have consequences for sustainable levels of harvesting and other ecosystem services in the future. xlii Coastal Ecosystems Accelerated sea-level rise, changes in the wave climate and storms may result in a narrowing of dunes and salt marshes where they cannot spread inland, particularly in the case of a narrow and steep foreshore.

According to Omstedt et al. (2004) the net outflow to the North Sea, excluding the Kattegat and Belt Sea water budget, is around 15,500 m3 s−1 (or 488 km3 year−1) with an interannual variability of ±5000 m3 s−1. 2 Coastal Types The coasts of the North Sea display a large variety of landscapes, among the largest in the world. They vary from mountainous coasts interspersed by fjords and cliffs with pebble beaches to low cliffs with valleys and sandy beaches with dunes. There is a broad contrast between the northern North Sea coasts and the southern North Sea coasts; while the northern coasts are more mountainous and rocky the southern coasts are often sandy or muddy.

Photo copyright T. Stojanovic (a), M. Quante (b, d), M. Stock (c) 1993). Some of these estuaries were closed in recent times. The subsequent Dutch coast, between Hoek van Holland and Den Helder is characterised by an uninterrupted coastal barrier with high dunes. The Wadden Sea and barrier islands characterise the coast between the IJsselmeer in the Netherlands and the Blavandshuk peninsula Skallingen in Denmark. The Wadden Sea comprises a shallow body of water with tidal sand- and mudflats, which cover over two-thirds of the area, as well as salt marshes and other wetlands.

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